LTspice and tube models

Linear Technology’s LTspice is becoming quite popular among audio circuit designers, both professional and amateur. There is a lot to recommend it, but there is at least one issue that is crucial to be aware of if you are planning to use vacuum tube or other third-party models based on arbitrary behavioral voltage or current sources. And that is: LTspice’s implementation of arbitrary behavioral voltage or current sources is not completely SPICE 3 compatible.

In particular (from the LTspice help files),

LTspice uses the caret character, ^, for Boolean XOR and “**” for exponentiation. … This means that when you import a 3rd party model that was targeted at a 3rd party simulator, you may need to translate the syntax such as x^y to x**y or even pwr(x,y).

I ran into exactly this issue when experimenting with SPICE 3 versions of my own tube models.